What are the four temples of Machu Picchu?

The Temples of Machu Picchu — The historic sanctuary of Machupicchu is located in Aguas Calientes district, Urubamba province, in the department of Cusco. This Inca citadel houses several temples that stand out above the rest and they were used as worshiping places for their main deities such as the Sun and the Moon.

What are the main characteristics of Inca temples?

  • The worshiping sanctuaries of the Andean men from the Inca period, had an advanced architecture by perfectly interlocking the stones, roofed with straw(natural fiber).
  • Depending on the type of temple, but if it was a temple dedicated for astronomical observations, the priests in charge of those shrines had to be knowledge about the sidereal space themes in order to determine the seasons of the year and thus contribute to the good practice of agriculture.
  • Most Inca temples were built at elevated areas or visible locations to resemble domination over the other buildings and at the same time protection for the inhabitants.
  • The Inca people had many temples dedicated to the sun, the moon, the stars, the lightning, the rainbow, the puma, the condor, the serpent, the pacha mama(mother earth), the pacha tata (the father earth or the rain), etc.

Before visiting Machu Picchu, check out all the must-know information below.

1. The temple of Sun

The Temple of the Sun is definitely the most outstanding attraction in Machu Picchu citadel, it is a semicircular building dedicated to the Sun God, it was erected on a huge solid granite rock in the religious sector, and underneath the solid granite rock there is a natural cave that was also carved to convert it into the Royal Tomb.

What is the most important place of the Sun temple?

Inside the Sun temple, right in the center, there is a carved stone that worked out as a shrine to the Sun. You can also see two windows, one facing west and the other window facing north, according to researches carried out in the 20th century, the windows were built to accurately observe the Solstices and Equinoxes based on the shade they projected every June 21st and December 21st.

Only the Inca emperor, the noble family and the priests were allowed to access the Sun temple for rituals.

2. The Temple of the Moon

If you already went to Machu Picchu and you don’t remember visiting this temple, the reason is very simple, the Moon temple, is not located precisely in the Machu Picchu Inca citadel but in Huayna Picchu.

If you wish visiting this awesome temple, you will have to climb Huayna Picchu, the hike up takes about 1.5 hours – 2 kilometers – Keep in mind that this hiking Huayna Picchu is very steep.

The principle of Dualism is very popular in Andean societies, the idea of splitting almost everything in two or assuming that each entity has its opposite or complementary side was very popular for ancient Peruvians, for example almost all the mountains had their partners, the cities were divided in two ( the Hanan and the Hurin – the upper part and the lower part), the Pacha Mama (mother earth) and the Pacha Tata (the rain), the Sun and the Moon, it was believed that the Moon was the wife of the Sun god, therefore she was a deity to whom the Andean people venerate and built many temples for ceremonial purposes.

If you to travel to Cusco city, you will also explore the Moon temple located on the outskirts of Cusco, close to Saqsaywaman.

3. The Temple of the Condor

This enclosure has a unique design, the head of the Condor is carved on stone on the ground, if you wish to see the wings, just stand in front of the Cordor head (2 meters away) and look straight ahead, only in this way you will spot the wings of the Condor which formed by the two big rocks.

Keep in mind that not only the concept of duality was applied by the Incas to better understand the functioning of the world, but the Andean Trilogy was also applied, for example the Hanaq Pacha (the upper world), the Kay Pacha (this world), and the Ukhú Pacha (the lowe world), each world was represented by a God animal, for example the Condor for the upper world, this is why the Inca people built a temple dedicated to the Condor in Machu Picchu citadel.

Underneath the temple of the Condor, there is a cave that probably worked as a prison, although this information cannot be confirmed because all what we know about Machu Picchu is from researches done in the 20th century, not Spanish chronicler documents.

However in most well-organized societies there had to be laws to keep order and justice, thus the Inca people also their own laws such as “Ama Sua” (Don’t steal), “Ama Q’ella” (Don’t be lazy), “Ama Llulla” (Don’t tell a lie) and anyone violent these laws had to be condemned to prison or even to death.

4. The Main Temple or “Wayrana”

This temple is located on the highest part of the citadel, in the main plaza, this temple is known as the “Wayrana” in the Quechua language which means “a very windy place“, this is because the temple was built with Only three walls facing indoor the building, and thus leaving one of the sides without a wall where the wind enters from.

Indoor this temple there is a carved rock that could have represented the Chakana or the Southern Cross, due to the carving shape on high relief.

The temple was used to perform rituals dedicated mainly to the God Wiracocha, creator of everything in this universe.

No Inca temples or constructions were affected by earthquakes, not even Machu Picchu citadel, however there was a geological fault that happened in 600 years time and as a result of this planar fracture the “Wayrana temple” was altered

5. The Temple of the Three Windows

Templos de Machu Picchu

It is an enclosure that is located in the very heart of the urban sector and is part of the main plaza of of Machu Picchu, this construction is a wonderful Inca masonry made by perfect stone polishing so that the can be assembled and stand on the floor for humdreds of years with the help of gravity instead of using clay mortar.

6. The Intihuatana

The Intuhuatana of Machu Picchu is located in the main plaza, it is a huge carved rock that has a height of 1 meter by 2 meters in diameter with flat surfaces that has 4 sides carefully carved, each of these sides represents a cardinal point that indicated probably the solstices and equinoxes produced on the stone surface because of the shadow.

Templos de Machu Picchu

The term Inti Huatana derives from the Quechua language and translated into English means “A place where the Sun is tied“, so as per the Quechua language and researches from the 20th century we can say that, the stone worked out as an Astronomical Observatory and a Solar Clock and the priests trying to interpret or decode these events had to use the shadow projections the stone at different day times and seasons of the year.  


We’re here to help you — If you have any questions about free tours and excursions in Cusco, don’t hesitate to contact us, you can also see our comments on Facebook and Tripadvisor.

Boleto Turístico Cusco: Cusco Tourist Ticket

The Boleto Turístico Cusco or BTC is a Cusco tourist ticket-package that contains 16 most outstanding attractions of Cusco city and region, without this document you will not be able to visit most of the attractions in Cusco.

  • Boleto Turístico Cusco = BTC
  • Completo = full-priced ticket
  • Parcial = half-priced ticket

1. Types of the Boleto Turístico Cusco

Type of BTC# de attractionsPriceValidity
BTC Completo16 tourist sites130 Soles10 days
BTC Parcial: Circuit 14 archaeological sites70 Soles1 day
BTC Parcial: Circuit 22 archaeological sites
4 museums
1 cultural center
1 urban monument
70 Soles2 days
BTC Parcial: Circuit 34 archaeological sites70 Soles2 days

2. List of attractions and what I can see according to my type of BTC

AttractionsBTC CompletoBTC Parcial: Circuit 1 BTC Parcial: Circuit 2 BTC Parcial: Circuit 3
Sacsayhuamán
Qenqo
Puca Pucara
Tambomachay
Pisac
Ollantaytambo
Chinchero
Pikillaqta
Tipón
Moray
Monument of Pachacuteq
Centro Qosqo de Arte Nativo
Contemporary Art Museum
Popular art museum
Regional Historical Museum
Qoricancha On-Site Museum

3. What BTC should I buy according to my tour?

Paid Tours CuscoAttractionsBTC Parcial: Circuit 1BTC Parcial: Circuit 2 BTC Parcial: Circuit 3
City tour CuscoSacsayhuamán
Qenqo
Puca Pucara
Tambomachay
Clasic Sacred ValleyPisac
Ollantaytambo
Chinchero
Vip Sacred ValleyPisac
Ollantaytambo
Chinchero
Moray
South ValleyTipón
Pikillaqta
Note: If you are going to combine any of the tours above, you have to buy the BTC Completo (full-priced).

If you are going to book the free tours of Cusco, you don’t need the BTC unless you will do the free tour of Sacsayhuamán, see the table below:

Free tours of CuscoAttractionsBTC Parcial: Circuit 1BTC Parcial: Circuit 2 BTC Parcial: Circuit 3
Classic Free tourHistorical Center
Free tour SacsayhuamánSacsayhuamán
Free tour Museums Inca Museum
Temple of Qoricancha

4. Discounts:

  • Students:
    • BTC Completo: 70 Soles | There is no BTC parcial for students.
    • Requirements:
      • You should be under 25 years old (you cann’t be 25 years old)
      • Bring your Original Identity Document and/or Passport
      • If you are not a Peruvian, you must have your ISIC Card
      • If you are a Peruvian, you must bring your Student Card issued by SUNEDU
      • If you are under 18 years of age, you don’t need any type of student card, but bring your Identification Document
      • Children under 10 years old: They enter for free, just bring their Identity Documents; however, sometimes it doesn’t apply because the authorities change the rules from time to time
      • * Bring always with you, your original Identity Document, Passport or Card; photocopies or digital photos aren’t accepted at all
  • Peruvians:
    • BTC completo: 70 Soles | BTC parcial: 40 Soles
    • * You have to bring your original ID, otherwise you will pay as a foreign tourist

5. Where do I buy it?

  • Avenida el Sol N° 185 — opening hours:
    • Monday to Friday: 8am to 5:30pm
    • Saturdays: 8:30am to 12:30pm
    • Sundays: Closed
  • Take cash in Soles. No other currencies or cards are accepted
  • You won’t be able to buy the BTC Online
  • It’s not mandatory to buy in advance, we suggest you buy the same day of your tour, at the attraction (at the check-point), please do always take cash in Soles.

6. It is not part of BTC

7. Faq’s

  • Can I transfer my BTC to another visitor? No.
  • Are there discounts for citizens of the Comunidad Andina? No.
  • Can I use the BTC twice? No.
  • Can I buy the BTC for one attraction only? No, you either buy the BTC Copleto (full-priced) or the BTC parcial (half-priced).
  • Can I have discounts if I buy several BTC’s? No.

8. Photo of BTC

Boleto Turístico Cusco: Guía definitiva 100% actualizada

9. Images of the 16 attractions

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The Cusco painting in the XVI and XVII century and its influence in Lima and Quito

La Pintura Cusqueña
The Last Supper by Marco Zapata Sinchi Roca – In the center of the table there is a «Cuy» (Guinea Pig)

The Cusco painting is a cultural convention of full originality unparalleled in the history of pictorial art in Latin America, although the painting was developed in other Spanish colonial centers such as Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico and in some less important places, without However, the Cusco painting school stood out, creating a very peculiar mestizo style for its formal and conceptual beauty.

From being an instrument of ideological domination to the Spaniards, the painting became a subtle form of cultural resistance by the Indians, and mestizos who appropriated European art techniques and concepts while still expressing their own ideas and experiences: From this particular amalgam emerged the School of Painting Cusco that was cultivated for three centuries (XVI, XVII and XVIII) by various authors some known and other anonymous who worked in workshops jointly under the direction of a recognized teacher .

The Highlights of Cusco Painting

Notwithstanding the remarkable thing, outside the peculiarities of the different styles and authors is the Cusco Painting as a collective phenomenon of expression of a historical era dominated by Catholic religious forms. But where native cultural elements are incorporated, thus ineffably defining the essence of what constitutes Peru today as a country. The Spanish painting of the time is characterized by the flight of the world and asceticism as the path required for the salvation of humanity, this is opposed by the indigenous pantheistic vision linked to land and nature, subtraction, rites sumptuous, to the enjoyment of life without prejudice. From this contrast, the mestizo style that incorporates elements of the Cusqueño context, such as local landscapes, animal flowers and indigenous characters with their native clothing, will gradually emerge evanescent.

La Pintura Cusqueña
Cuzqueña Painting in the Viceroyalty of Peru

The Cusco painting in the 16th and 17th century

During the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth century Cusco painting was influenced by Italian and European painters who came to Peru in search of good chances to get rich, given the economic glow in which the viceroyalty lived by the extraction of gold and silver, between We can highlight the well-known painter Alesio. In the centuries mentioned, the influence of the Jesuits who installed the painting as a systematic means to teach their doctrines is also evident. The subtlety with which the Jesuits knew how to catechize the Native Americans through the knowledge of their mentality and culture is proverbial. This perception was reflected in the religious iconography in which the Jesuits like Bitti, an immediate Mannerist master of the Baroque and others who knew us, developed in the region of Cusco this art for the splendor of the church, and as the Jesuits said its motto: ” To the greater glory of God. ” Understanding the extension and multiplicity of the pictorial phenomenon of Cusco also implies recognizing the ideology that underlies this in the history of Peru and the importance that the Society of Jesus had in its conformation.

La Pintura Cusqueña
The Mannerism of Jesuit Bernardo Bitti in the Cusco School

The Influence of Italian Painters the Fresco Cusqueños

The influences of the Italian and Flemish painting of the Jesuit school during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries converge in the so-called baroque style, which knows its maximum splendor and development during the seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries and which defines a style of the Spanish Catholicism of the counter-reform. Baroque moved to America became the quintessential colonial art, introducing diagonal composition, aerial perspective and chiaroscuro between its fundamental defining elements. Finally, as a continuity of the Baroque, neoclassicism emerged in the 18th century, although without the twist and originality of the one who tried to rescue pictorially the classical Greek and Latin elements developed during the Renaissance era. In addition to Jesuit Bitti and Alesio who worked with Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, we can highlight the presence of Indian and mestizo painters such as Basilio de Santa Cruz, Diego Quispe Tito who studied in Europe and. He created a very personal style easily recognizable by the freedom of his forms that hereafter defines Cusqueña Painting. Marcos Zapata was a prolific author of many works of very high quality. In its surroundings are other painters such as Chacón, Vilca and Tadeo Escalante who follow in one way or another their style, some with a more or less classical, academic vision, the others more influenced by the decorative model. Finally, along with Zapata, we find Mauricio García who worked by directing other teachers with assistants through a large workshop, making a collective painting that was not uncommon in the guild of Cusco painters. In a succinct introduction it is impossible to highlight all the richness and artistic originality of Cusco’s painting as well as its social and ideological connotations due to the breadth and diversity that this phenomenon acquired. There are thousands of paintings that were taken from Cusco and Peru for many years so it is impossible to make a complete catalog that broadly encompasses a qualitative and quantitative vision of this artistic manifestation. The selection of the Cusqueña Painting that we present in this publication is an evident proof that speaks for itself same and that obvious any other comment or consideration.

La Pintura Cusqueña
Return to Egypt by Diego Quispe Tito

If you want to continue knowing more about the Cusco painting and its charms in Lima and Cusco, be part of our free walking tours en Lima and Free Tour Cusco with the best guides in Spanish, fully qualified guides, see you in our next blog!

Volunteering in Cusco: Activities and community service for good hearted travelers

Cusco, called the archaeological capital of America, is a place blessed with a great culture and fascinating traditions, full of contrasts between indigenous and colonial styles, a land where the Incas built their great empire and where people lived in harmony with Mother Earth for centuries.

But it is also a department that has many disadvantaged sectors such as, Lares (Province of Calca), Omacha (Province of Paruro), Checca (Province of Canas) and Colquepata (Province of Paucartambo), Ccorca the less attended district and many others that have needs, and require social, voluntary, and solidarity commitment for their development.

We are convinced that Ayni a tradition of reciprocity that we inherit from our Inca ancestors is the best way to improve our lives.

The Team of Free Walking Tours Peru

For all these needs, all nonprofit organizations, foundations and associations require people to collaborate with them to make the organization progress and in turn provide good service to today’s society, to families that are in a situation of financial aid. or emotional Volunteering especially supports those most vulnerable groups that are at risk of social exclusion.

Volunteering in Cusco

Volunteering in Lares, Cusco

The local people of Cusco are very warm, friendly and welcoming, so many travelers are delighted with this hospitality and stay longer than planned by volunteering in different sectors of Cusco.

Volunteering in Cusco will fulfill the double objective, that of helping communities in different aspects, as well as immersing ourselves in their culture.

The community service activities in Cusco are carefully selected to generate an experience and benefit for both the good-hearted volunteer and also for the communities that receive support. The requirements of each vulnerable community are mitigated with different areas and ways of working and helping.

A social work where you will also have the opportunity to meet many foreigners from all over the world.

Volunteer programs in Cusco

Volunteering in the city of Cusco brings you several advantages and seeing how interesting its culture, tradition, custom, and history of the imperial city of Cusco is, so why not volunteer in this beautiful city?

Here are some of the most attractive programs for volunteering:

International Course

It is an international organization of Canadian origin, whose actions focus on reducing poverty and inequality through the effort to train and empower volunteers. Web:

http://www.cusointernational.org. Teléfono: +1 888 434 2876.

WWOOF

Siglas en inglés “World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms”, sus actividades se enfocan específicamente a realizar voluntariados en granjas o programas rurales de agricultura y ganadería. permite la subscripción anual. En Cusco y sus alrededores disponen habitualmente de una gran cantidad de programas de voluntariado muy interesantes. Pero si lo tuyo no es estar en contacto con la tierra y mancharte las manos, es mejor que optes otra opción.

Exploor Peru Social Project

Its activity focuses on helping to maintain and revive traditions, values ​​and help create their own economic and educational opportunities for each peasant community for current and future generations.

Workaway

This platform offers a wide range of possibilities especially aimed at volunteering in hotels, tour and adventure companies. It is an excellent opportunity to get free accommodation and to make free of charge the best active tourism tours in Cusco and surroundings.

Volunteering in Perú 

Its objective of this organization is to help in the projects in Cusco by sending volunteers to the different projects which need help. Volunteers offer an invaluable contribution to society as well as bringing the foreigner closer to the local community. Volunteers work in various fields such as childcare, health, construction, etc. Each volunteer chooses which project they want to work on.

Aldea Yanapay

This organization works with a methodology that is based on an education with love, freedom, self-knowledge, awareness, ethics and sustainability with children, adolescents, adults, families, in order to remind the human being, that all medicine, healing, motivation and development are within oneself. At the moment it has two projects: one in the city of Cusco and the other is the community in the Sacred Valley in Lamay, a place that is one hour from the city.

Human Actions

Human Actions is intended to help puppies and other types of pets in a state of abandonment. They try to improve the quality of life of these innocent creatures by keeping them in a warm and safe shelter in the district of Saylla.

The work carried out by this NGO generates awareness and improves the quality of life of the animals it hosts, but also generates a better quality of life and health for the city of Cusco, where there are about 10,000 abandoned domestic animals.

Human Actions gives the possibility to all types of people to volunteer in their shelter, supporting cleaning or interaction with these nice animals.

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The Pachamama deity on the Andes

1. What is Pachamama and what does it mean?

The Pachamama or Mother Earth is a divinity that represents nature for many Andean peoples of South America. In Inca mythology, she is recognized as a goddess associated with the feminine and fertility, as the spirit of the earth, which is why the Incas were very respectful of their environment. She is also known as the wife of lightning.

2. What is the Pachamama ritual?

The main ritual of Mother Earth is the “Challa”, payment or tribute. It can be done on the first Friday of any month, the best stage being the 1st of August or throughout the month. Just as it can be done on special occasions to ask the Pachamama for grace and good luck. This action includes a kind of ritual steps, which consist in the preparation of a special meal the night before and it is offered the next day in a special stone formation called the water hole or in the intake of an irrigation ditch where the main ritual is carried out. , in which the food prepared beforehand is offered together with drinks, mainly coca leaves and cigarettes.

En la actualidad el pago a la Pachamama se realiza también por familias cristianas y pachamamistas, teniendo así diferentes variaciones en la ofrenda y la comida.

3. Where did the Pachamama originate?

Pachamama in the legends is a young and beautiful divinity that has its origin in the Collao or Altiplano area. Since mother earth has a singular beauty, everyone wanted to marry Pachamama, one of them is Wacon, with a malevolent character, however, she chooses Pachacamac; Wacon’s brother, considered the maker of the world and the heavens. By winning the duel for the love of Pachamama, Wacon is dissatisfied and begins to create droughts and floods in the terrestrial world for which he is expelled from heaven to the caves. After this event Pachamama and Pachacamac have twin sons called the Wilcas.

4. What is Pachamama fed with?

  • This practice is based on the delivery of offerings in payment to the land on the day of the Pachamama celebration. The residents make these offerings as a sign of gratitude, requests or favors by delivering a payment in advance, with material elements of natural origin called dispatches.
  • The most popular and that are normally delivered together are the coca leaf, banana, chicha, wine and certain seeds from the jungle with symbolic and magical power such as the huairuro. And among some rarer we have rice, starfish, cookies, sweets, mixture; among others.
  • The offices are different according to the place, territory or ecological floor. This ritual revitalizes the energy borrowed from the Pachamama during the agricultural year.
  • In the area of Puno and Bolivia the dispatches are sweeter.
  • In Cusco they are more linked to their ecological floor in the sacred valley with products such as corn, beans, etc.
  • The dispatches are also made with the purpose of multiplying their herds. The horticulturists or fruit plantations smoke coca and dry skin of the snakes with incense in vegetable and rocoto orchards as well as offer llama and vicuña fetuses, people believe that these offerings are better received.
  • Normally these offerings are made on August 1, but they are usually made throughout that month.

5. When is Pachamama’s day?

August 1st is a very special date for Latin America; It is Pachamama Day. It is a day of gratitude to Mother Earth for her protection and providence, this date is characterized by an awareness of what the earth offers us as well as reminding us that we must respect and care for it above all else.


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Find more information about the guided walking tours in Cusco where more about the Pachamama is explained.

Free Walking Tour Puno | Tours on foot in Puno

free walking tour Puno português
Free Walking Tour Puno

Puno city is the gateway to Lake Titicaca, therefore you will most likely have some free time to stroll the city on foot, but where to start? How to do it? Don´t worry! below we highlighted the must-see attractions in the historical center that you can visit for free by doing your own self-guided free walking tour Puno, just follow the instructions, we have also embedded a google map with the highlights!

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This is the plan for the Free Walking Tour Puno

Check out all the recommendations below to see where you can start? What to see? Where to finish your walk? Where to eat the best food in Puno city?

Start at the Plaza de Armas of Puno

In pre-Hispanic times there were already human settlements of farmers and fishermen who lived on the shores of Lake Titicaca according to many chroniclers and historians, which suggests that when the Spaniards arrived Puno city´s location from today, they made a Re-foundation of the city in 1668 under the name of San Carlos de Puno.

free walking tour Puno português, plaza de armas puno
Plaza de Armas de Puno

Puno like many colonial towns in Peru still has a strong colonial Spanish background in architecture and the urban planning which resembles a Checkers´ board or quadratic cities and right in the center there is the Plaza de Armas which is the birthplace of the city.

In the central part of the square, there was a colonial water fountain that was removed and replaced in 1925, by the statue of General Francisco Bolognesi, a hero of the Pacific war against Chile.

Atrium of the Cathedral of Puno

The beautiful baroque-style cathedral was built in between 1669 and 1757 founded by Silvestre de Valdez, damaged by earthquakes. Many restorations were many by Emilio Hart Terre.

free walking tour Puno português, catedral de puno
Catedral de Puno

At the façade you will see many flora and fauna representations on high relief, there is also a mermaids figures holding  Charangos (Small Guitars made out from the Armadillo Schells), you cannot miss this place definitely when you free tour in Puno.

Conde de Lemos Balcony

free walking tour Puno português, varanda do conde lemos
Varanda do Conde Lemos

Laykakota was a mine and at the same time a city located approximately 6km in the northeast of Puno city from where silver was extracted, this mining was founded by the brothers Gaspar and José Salcedo in the mid-seventeenth century.

At the beginning of 1667 the conflicts and rebellions between the Spaniards from the north (Basque Country) and the Spaniards of the south (Andalusia) began, even though there was an express order of the Viceroy Count of Lemos to stop the conflicts, these rebellions did not cease, which is why the Viceroy of Peru, Don Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro, better known as Count of Lemos, had to travel to the city of Puno and deal personally with this conflicts to restore order and peace.

Carlos Dreyer Spohr Museum

Carlos Dreyer Spohr was originally born in Germany at the end of the 19th century, then he migrated to Peru and lived in the city of Puno for around 30 years, he was an antique collector, painter and passionate about cultures that lived and lives around the Lake Titicaca.

free walking tour Puno en español, museo carlos dreyer
Museu Dreyer

All Carlos’s collections are now exhibited in this museum, where you can see ceramics, metallurgy, textiles and even sculptures from the Puno region. There are many artefacts from different historical periods, there are even human remains that come from the tombs of Sillustani.

Price: Adults pay 5 USD approx. | Students pay 3 USD approx. | Please bring local currency!

Opening hours: 9am to 7pm

This site is optional since there a fee for accessing this museum

The House of Corregidor

This beautiful colonial house was built in a total area of ​​600 square meters, dates back to the 16th century, the house still maintains its colonial-style through Sevillian tiles, patio and balconies; The house was an official residence for the most important authority from the colonial period who had the political title of “Corregidor”.

free walking tour Puno português, casa do corregidor
Casa do Corregidor

Corregidor literally means “a person who is responsible for making order and peace in a city”, at that time he was the highest authority of the city as it is the Mayor nowadays.

The house was badly damaged by the earthquakes of 1781, 1810 and 1981 and fortunately rebuilt and today is used for different exhibitions of art, music, literature, etc.

Jiron Lima

free walking tour Puno português, jiron lima
Jiron Lima

This is just a fun walking street where you will find arts and crafts, cafes, bars, restaurants, hotels, and travel agents, definitely the perfect place for a pleasant afternoon stroll, if you are looking for an awesome restaurant you can find it at this street.

Church de San Juan Bautista

free walking tour Puno português, igreja san juan bautista de puno
Igreja San Bautista de Puno

The original church was built in 1562 but unfortunately, it was destroyed by an earthquake, the current church we see today dates back to 1887 and has an Ogival French architectural style.

free walking tour Puno português, virgem da candelaria
Virgem da Candelaria

This church is also very famous because within it is the patroness saint of the Puno city known as The Virgin of Candelaria, the most famous in the southern part of Peru, the catholic festivity takes place on February the 2nd of each year, you definitely do your best free walking tour Puno with vivid Culture.

Parque Pino

The Park was built at the beginning of the 20th century in memory of Manuel Pino who is one of our heroes of the Pacific war against Chile; Manuel Pino was born to Puno city and studied law and politics in Arequipa city, he participated in the battle of Miraflores (Lima) in 1881 where he died heroically.

free walking tour Puno português, parque o pino
Parque O Pino

Nowadays the park is the main place where locals gather to talk about politics and social issues; this park is also used for cultural events, similar to Plaza San Martin in Lima city, make your way here when you do your free walking tour in Puno.

Mercado Central Puno

free walking tour Puno português, mercado central do puno
Mercado Central

If you haven´t visited a traditional place in Peru, you will surely love this market. Traveling for many tourists means not only visiting touristic attractions but also giving it a social sense by exploring non-touristic locations and thus helping locals through a purchase. In this market, you will find food, clothes, and souvenirs of Puno, each stall operates independently and the vendors are very friendly. If you are looking for food go upstairs to the second floor where you will find traditional food for 10 soles or 3 USD for a set menu (soup, main course, and infusion).

Plaza del Faro

This square is located about 7 minutes’ walk from the Central Market, visiting it is highly recommended! From here, you can see the immensity of the highest navigable lake in the World and the largest in South America. The place is also perfect for photos shooting, especially if the day is very sunny, the photo can be taken with the background of Puno city or Lake Titicaca.

Praça do Farol

There are also restaurants at this pier and square, after lunch, you can take a boardwalk along the coast of Puno, everything is sign-posted, or else you can take a boat to the floating Islands of Uros.


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From Barranco and Miraflores to Lima center—Fast and Cheap

Metropolitano en Lima

From Barranco and Miraflores to Lima center— Hello, we are glad that you are reading this article, we won’t waste your time, we will get straight to the point, read below all the steps to get to the historic center of Lima— the simplest and fastest way.


How to get from Barranco neighborhood to our free tour meeting point in Lima historic center?

  • Take the Metropolitano local bus:
    • Get to Boulevard Metropolitano Bus station, which is just right across the Main Plaza of Barranco.
    • Buy your Card from the operator at the bus station. The price is 4.50 Soles and refill it—How much should you refill? The cost for any destination is 3.50 Soles per person
    • Inside the Bus station, get in Line C, heading to the North (Hacia al Norte). Ask local people by saying in Spanish: ¿De dónde tomo el bus para Jirón de la Union?.
    • Once you are on the bus, it will take you about 30 minutes to get to Estación Jirón de la Unión — Get off at this station, the names of the stations are displayed on the screen inside the buses and are also announced verbally.
    • Finally, from the Jirón de la Unión bus station, walk to La Merced Church (our meeting point for Lima center free tour), we will wait for you at 11 am and 3 pm in front of this church for the free tour; this is the reason why you need to reserve the 11 am or 3 pm schedule.
 De Barranco y Miraflores a Lima centro—Rápido y Barato
La Merced church

How to get from Miraflores neighborhood to our free tour meeting point Lima historic center?

You have 2 options:

  1. Leave with us from Miraflores to Lima center:
  2. Take the Metropolitano bus:
    • Get to Benavides Metropolitano Bus station, which is just right across the Main Plaza of Barranco.Buy your Card from the operator at the bus station. The price is 4.50 Soles and refill it—How much should you refill? The cost for any destination is 3.20 Soles per person
    • Inside the Bus station, get in Line C, heading to the North (Hacia al Norte). Ask local people by saying in Spanish: ¿De dónde tomo el bus para Jirón de la Union?.
    • Once you are on the bus, it will take you about 30 minutes to get to Estación Jirón de la Unión — Get off at this station, the names of the stations are displayed on the screen inside the buses and are also announced verbally.
    • Finally, from the Jirón de la Unión bus station, walk to La Merced Church (our meeting point for Lima center free tour), we will wait for you at 11 am and 3 pm in front of this church for the free tour; this is the reason why you need to reserve the 11 am or 3 pm schedule.
De Barranco y Miraflores a Lima centro—Rápido y Barato
Iglesia La Merced

How to Taxi or Uber?

If you take a Taxi from Barranco or Miraflores to La Merced Church (Lima historic center), pay 35 Soles average total price, you will be at La Merced Church in about 40 minutes to 1 hour time, make sure you take a Taxi or Uber beforehand.

Kennedy Park in Miraflores, Central Park of Lima — Peru

1. History

Kennedy Park Miraflores | In pre-colombian times of the Peruvian coast, the indigenous people used to practice a large-scale agrarian economy, although there was a lack of water, therefore, they did their best to solve this issue by building water channels to bring the water from the Andes and use them for irrigation.

The Rímac Valley, including the Kennedy Park area in Miraflores, was part of large agricultural areas where indigenous societies grew corn, cotton, beans, pumpkins, peanuts, yuccas, etc.

The Spanish arrived in Lima in 1535 and maintained the agricultural condition of the entire Miraflores area, but in many cases, native plantations were changed by European crops; thus, the entire Miraflores area during the colonial period became mainly grape and sugar cane plantations.

On January the 2nd, 1857, the political creation of the Miraflores district was finally carried out, under the government of President Ramón Castilla.

Durante el período republicano, Perú tuvo 8 guerras, 4 de ellas fueron ganadas, 3 empates y 1 perdido— Guerra del Pacífico (Perú vs. Chile, 1879-1883); una de las últimas batallas de la Guerra del Pacifico, sucedió en el distrito de Miraflores (Parque Kennedy), en donde los lugareños construyeron muchas trincheras o reductos de guerra para defender Lima contra los chilenos.

During the republican period, Peru had 8 wars, 4 of them were won, 3 draws, and 1 lost— The War of Pacific (Peru vs. Chile, 1879-1883); One of the last battles of that war, happened in the district of Miraflores (Kennedy Park), where the locals built many trenches or war redoubts to defend Lima against the Chileans.

Parque Kennedy Miraflores

Este evento bélico se llama “La Batalla de Miraflores” y ocurrió el 18 de enero de 1881; así que ahora sabes, que si te hospedas por el área del Parque Kennedy, fue un ¡Campo de Guerra!

This warlike event is called The Battle of Miraflores and it occurred on January 18th, 1881; So now you know, that if you stayed around the Kennedy Park area, it was a War Camp!


2. Description

Today, the park occupies an area of approximately 22,000 m², it is highly visited by many locals and tourists due to its history, location and infrastructure; In this place you will find restaurants, street food, bars, shops, banks, hotels, hostels, small information points for tourists, etc.


3. Why is it called Kennedy Park?

El nombre oficial de este lugar era Parque Central de Miraflores, pero en la década de los 60 del siglo XX, el Parque Central se dividido en dos áreas verdes públicos:

The official name of this place was Parque Central de Miraflores, but in the 1960s, the Central Park was divided into two public green parks:

  1. El Parque 7 de junio , which commemorates one of the most important battles in Peruvian history and the day of the National Flag.
  2. El Parque Kennedy, in honor of the president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, for the role that he played, in the political movement called Alliance for Progress, in the middle of the 20th century.

Sin embargo, a finales de siglo XX, la Municipalidad de Miraflores ha restaurado el nombre original Parque Central de Miraflores, pero aun así la mayoría de la gente lo llama coloquialmente Parque Kennedy.

However, at the end of the 20th century, the Municipality of Miraflores has restored the original name of this place: Parque Central de Miraflores, but even so, most people colloquially call it Parque Kennedy.


4. Location

It is located teh avenues: Diagonal Angamos, José Larco and Schell street; if you are in Miraflores, you can go there on foot.


5. Schedule

It is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.


6. Price

This place is 100% Free.


7. What to see in this park?

If you feel like, you can visit this park on your own, the park is super safe, clean and orderly; at this place you will find:

  1. Roundabout—Ovalo Miraflores.
  2. Street Cats
  3. The Catholic Church of Virgen Milagrosa
  4. The amphitheater—El Anfiteatro Chabuca Granda.
  5. Small plazas where you can find everything from crafts, paintings, etc.

8. What to do in Kennedy Park?

8.1 Walking

Thanks to its enormous expanse of green areas, beautiful gardens of colorful flowers and lush trees, this beautiful space has become one of the lungs of the city preferred by the locals and the tourists as well.

8.2 Jogging

There is a specific pedestrian corridor where locals and even tourist can exercise in the morning or any time!

8.3 Resting

Are you bored in your hotel room? Then come to this Park which is fully implemented with benches, the park itself is quite and safe!

8.4 Taste the street food

Taste some traditional culinary, you can even find some car vendors that offer clean street food, such as the great a Butifarra, a sandwich of Peruvian-style ham with yellow aji pepper, red onion, lettuce and mayonnaise on French bread, the also offer delicious Churros and Picarones.

8.5 Shopping Handicrafts

Make your way to the big handicraft Mercado known as Mercado Indio, you can find many souvenirs, hats, t-shirts or anything that is very local; it is very close to the park.

8.6 Dancing on Weekends at Chabuca Granda Amphitheater

On weekends, you can enjoy excellent music in the amphitheater where they play different rhythms for couples where everyone can go and participate even if you are single, this amphitheater offers different artistic and cultural activities such as local or latin music(cha cha, boleros and salsa), choirs, poetry, etc.

8.7 Make your Kids happy!

If you stay in Miraflores with your kids, there is no need to take them to an amusement park rides instead you can just make your way to Kennedy Park and there is a playground in the middle of the park, dedicated for the little ones with varios games, it is free!

8.8 Visit the Virgen Milagrosa Church!

It was built in 1939, designed by Ricardo de Jaxa Malachowski, where you can see stained glass windows with images of the life of Jesus and many catholic saints!

8.9 Walk with cats at Kennedy Park!

In many cities in Peru, you will see many street dogs however at this Park you won´t see any! instead, you will see many Cats of all sizes, breeds and colors that you can observe, pet and even feed them.
In many cities in Peru, you will see many street dogs however at this Park you won´t see any! Instead, you will see many Cats of all sizes, breeds and colors that you can observe, pet and even feed them.

8.10 Visit the Local Artists at Paseo de los Pintores

There are many local artists such as sculptors and painters who meet in the middle of this park to sell their works, local painters pracitice a type of Art known as Costumbrismo a visual interpretation of day-to-day practices created by Pacho Fierro at the end of the 19th century.

8.11 Visit Calle de las Pizzas, Oops sorry! No more Calle de las Pizzas

There used to be a cool Street next to this park where mainly Italian food would be offered starting the 70s, but unfortunately the last decade it became a street for also selling drugs, this was the main reason why the city hall of Miraflores has shut down the street the beginning of 2019 and it is nowadays on restoration. It won´t be again Pizza street! Although you can still find some good bars and discos for having some local drinks like pisco sours!

8.12 BOOK our FREE walking tour of Lima leaving from Kennedy Park!

If you have just arrived in Peru, you are staying in Miraflores and you don’t know how to get to the historic center, don’t worry!; You can join our Free Lima walking tours, starting from Miraflores, we will show you how to get to the center of Lima by local bus, the most emblematic places of the historic center of Lima and what to eat in Lima.

How to book?

If you are not very good at orientation or you don’t like to explore this city on your own, let our authorized guides by DIRCETUR of Lima, show you the historic center on foot for free, at the end of the tour you can leave a donation according to the service; for more details and booking visit Free Tour Lima, check out our amazing comments here. You can also see thousands of pictures and followers on our Instagram and Facebook.

Note for Peruvians: At the moment the free tours are only for non peruvian tourists. If you are Peruvian, book classic city tour of colonial and modern Lima.

To Consider: If you leave from Miraflores to the center of Lima with us, you will spend 3.50 Soles per person, because we will take the Metro-Bus (Metropolitano); However, if you take a taxi from Miraflores to the center of Lima, you will spend in between 30 and 40 Soles— (12 to 14 USD), in another words, with us you will save money.


9. The best restaurants in Kennedy Park


10. The best bars in Kennedy Park


11. How to get to Kennedy Park in Miraflores?

11.1 From Lima historical center:

If you are in Lima historical center, look for the Metro-Bus station called Metropolitano (we recommend you go to Jirón de la Unión or Colmena bus station), then take line “C” heading from north to south and get off at Ricardo Palma station, walk for about 5 minutes towards Kennedy Park— the price of the bus ticket is 3.20 Soles pp.

11.2 From Barranco:

If you are in Barranco, look for the Metro-Bus station called Metropolitano (we recommend you go to Bulevar bus station), then take line “C” heading from south to north and get off at Ricardo Palma station, walk for about 5 minutes towards Kennedy Park— the price of the bus ticket is 3.20 Soles pp.

11.3 From other districts:

Please take a taxi or uber, we suggest you haggle the price of the taxi fare, don’t be afraid, haggling in Peru is part of our culture.


12. Nearby places


13. Curious fact

13.1 Why are there many cats in this Park?

Hace muchos años habían muchas ratas y ratones que vivian en este parque, por lo que para resolver el problema, la gente de Miraflores empezó a dejar sus gatos en este parque y de alguna manera funcionó; pero con el tiempo, los gatos se multiplicaron y convirtieron a este parque en su hogar.

Many years ago there were many rats and mice that lived in this park, so to solve the problem, the people of Miraflores started leaving their cats in this park so that the cats can hunt them and somehow it worked out; but over the time, the cats multiplied and made this park their home.


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The Ruins of Pachacamac: Archaeological site of Peru

1. History of the Archaeological Site:

The Pachacamac ruins are further proof that the Peruvian coast were inhabited by different advanced civilizations during the pre-Hispanic period, such as the Lima culture (200 AD), then the Wari Empire and finally the arrival of the Incas in 1470 AD who were led by the 10th emperor, known as Tupaq Inca Yupanqui.

During the pre-Hispanic period, Pachacamac was a ceremonial center that brought together many buildings erected by different cultures. In this ceremonial place there were pyramidal temples, houses and frescoes, which decorated the adobe walls; Also in this place, there was a totem (physical representation of God Pachacamac).

In conclusion, we can say that Pachacamac was a ceremonial center where it was believed that the God Pachacamac lived, who was the “creator of this world”; That is why the pilgrimage to this temple was very constant and numerous, especially by the coastal populations of ancient Peru.


2. What is the meaning of the term Pachacamac?

The term Pachacamac derives from the Quechua language: Pacha means earth, world, universe, space and time; the word Camac means creator, maker and originator.


3. What is the God Pachacamac?

When the Incas consolidated the conquest of the coastal cultures of Peru at the end of the 15th century, they didn’t try to replace the god Pachacamac or destroy the temple of Pachacamac; but rather they incorporated the God Pachacamac into the Inca religion and embellished this temple, making it even more popular during the Inca period.

las ruinas de Pachacamac

Pre-Hispanic societies believed that Pachacamac had many connotations: Son of the God of the Sun, God of Fire, Creator of the Earth, Creator of the Universe, Creator of all things in this World, etc; It was also believed to have powers to rejuvenate, bring well-being, improve the practice of agriculture, cure diseases, etc.

Pachacamac was also linked to various elements of nature, such as water, fire and even earthquakes; He would be the cause of the tremors, but also the protector of it; as long as he was revered and pleased with many offerings.


4. The Legend of Pachacamac—Cavillaca

One of the most famous legends in Pachacamac tells that there was once upon a time a beautiful and vain woman called Cavillaca and all the gods wanted her to be his wife, but none achieved their purpose.

Cuniraya Wiracocha was a wise man who found a way to transform himself into a bird to conquer the maiden, he perched on a tree and made a fruit fall in front of the woman, which she ate and thus became pregnant of this man.

After nine months of pregnancy, Cavillaca had a very beautiful daughter, as it was not known who the father was, a meeting was held to find out who the father was, but nobody said anything. Cuniraya Wiracocha was not invited to the table of honor, but rather was sitting in a corner with very ragged clothes, waiting for some food to fall so that he can eat.

The maiden said to her daughter:

“Go and recognize your father who is here.”

The girl, crawling, went to the side of Cuniraya Wiracochathe ragged man; the mother after having seeing this situation, grabbed her daughter and disgusted ran to throw herself and her daughter into the sea.

Cuniraya Wiracocha run after her with a suit full of gold, he wanted to tell her that he dressed in rags, because he wanted to take away her vanity, but she didn’t turn around, because she was disgusted by what she had seen and didn’t want to see Cuniraya Wiracocha again, until she reached the sea and threw herself with her daughter, thus transforming both into a rock, because of her vanity.

Do you want to see the rock?

If you are in Pachacamac, you can see a small rocky island, the largest rock, represents Cavillaca and the small rock represents her daughter.

las ruinas de Pachacamac
The Legend of Pachacamac – Cavillaca

5. What civilizations occupied the Pachacamac complex?

5.1 The Lima culture (250 AD – 650 AD)

The first settlers of Pachacamac, began around the year 200 AD by the Lima Culture, who built the first temples in the religious sector, the construction techniques and the materials used by them were very simple, that is why adobitos (thin and rectangular adobes, very basic adobes) were mainly used; This fact is also because Lima culture had no technological influence from other civilizations.

5.2 Wari culture (650 AD – 1200 AD)

By 650 AD, the Wari culture took possession of this ceremonial center and the entire territory that belonged to the Lima culture; During the Wari occupation, the Pachacamac temple began to gain more size due to the new buildings that the Wari people erected, for example the Pachacamac Temple, also known as the Painted Temple.

According to the analysis of the excavations, it is concluded that the Waris militarily defeated the Lima culture; However, the Waris maintain the local traditions and art of the Lima culture, as proof of this, you can see that Wari ceramics have notable characteristics of the Lima culture from the year 650 AD.

5.3 The Ychsma or Ichma culture (1200 AD – 1470 AD)

In 1200 AD, the Ichma culture begins to expand and finally occupies the city and the ceremonial center of Pachacamac, this fact is not because the Ichma have defeated the Waris; but rather The Incas defeated the Waris in the Andes, this event favored the expansion of the Ichma culture.

During the Ichma occupation, Pachacamac increased its magnificence, for example: the Painted Temple was fortified and 15 main temples, stepped pyramids with ramps, storage facilities were also erected and the number of courtyards for ceremonial activities was increased.

5.4 The Inca Empire (1470 AD – 1535 AD)

After the defeat of the Waris in the Andes, the Incas went to the Peruvian coast to defeat various pre-Inca cultures such as the Chimu, the Chincha and the Ichma between AD 1450 and AD 1470; This military expedition was led by the 10th emperor known as Inca Tupaq Yupanqui.

Like the Waris and the Ichma, the Inca rulers allowed Pachacamac to coexist alongside their Sun God and Wiracocha (the creator God of everything for the Incas).

las ruinas de Pachacamac

The Inca architects increased the number of buildings, for example: they built the Temple of the Sun and the famous AcllaWasi or House of the chosen women (generally very young women), in these enclosures (only for women), use to live the Mamaconas who were the instructors to teach the young women different skills in textiles, ceramics and culinary.


6. What to see?

Finally, in the late 19th century, some archaeologists began the excavations at Pachacamac and found many buildings of great importance and burial sites, which had been destroyed in the colonial period.

  1. The religious sector: In this area you will see the three truncated and stepped Pyramids, the Painted Temple, the Temple of the Sun, the Ancient Temple of Pachacamac and the cemetery.
  2. The Pyramid Sector: The second section includes several secular and stepped adobe pyramids with ramps and plazas, this part of the complex dates from the late 1300 AD and mids 1400 AD.

For decades, most archaeologists thought that the pyramids of the second section were religious centers, which housed delegations from distant communities, who came on pilgrimage to worship and pay homage to the God Pachacamac.

However, according to archaeologist Peter Eekhout, who studied and excavated the Pachacamac archaeological site with his team, they discovered that the structures lacked the characteristics of religious centers of the time and that is why Peter and his team came to the conclusion that The Pyramids Sector of the Second Section were used as palaces by the pre-Hispanic rulers of Pachacamac and not as ceremonial centers.


7. Where is Pachacamac?

This archaeological site is located at Antigua Panamericana Sur km 31.5 in Lurín.


8. Opening Hours

  • Tuesday to Saturday from 9am to 5pm.
  • Sundays from 9am to 4pm.

Note:

Please call +511 3215606 to confirm the museum’s operation on holidays: July 28, December 25, January 1, etc.


9. Price

Tipo de VisitantePrice in SolesPrice is USD
Adult15 Soles5 USD
Students of Universities and Institutes (with valid canet)5 Soles 1.8 USD
Teachers, active military and adults over 65 with an Identity Document7.50 Soles 2.5 USD
Children under 12 years of age, Primary and Secondary schoolchildren1 Sol0.40 USD

Included:

  • Access to the Pachacamac ruins.
  • Access to the Pachacamac site museum.

Not Included:

The price of the ticket does not include a tour guide service, the guides charge about 30 Soles for 1.5 hours of service, the price will depend on the size of the group, schedule and the route you prefer.


10. Pachacamac on-site museum

This site museum was founded in 1965, it is one of the first site museums in Peru, in this museum you will see artifacts such as ceramics, textiles, wooden idols known as Pachacamac, etc.

Most of these archaeological remains were found during excavations in the 19th and 20th centuries.


11. How to get to the Pachacamac ruins?


11.1 For People from Lima city:

There are several lines of public transport whose bus-stops are at the door of the museum.

  • Ruta 8504: San Bartolo – Breña (Morado con blanco) – E.T. San José S.A.
  • Ruta 8508: Lima – Pucusana (Color blanco con letras negras) – E.T. Royal Express.
  • Ruta 8510/8511: San Miguel – San Bartolo (Color marrón con naranja) – E.T. GUSICSA.

If you want to use the Metropolitano buses, take those buses and get off at the final station called Matellini, then any bus heading to Villa El Salvador (we recommed you to take: Ruta AS-04 – Embarque 11) and get off at Supro, bus stop, then you cross the pedestrian bridge of the Panamericana Sur towards Universidad Científica del Sur; at that stop you can take any of the bus lines mentioned above.

11.2 For Peruvians and foreign tourists:

We advise you to use Uber or private taxi, due to security issues, orientation and distance of the attraction (It is not near Lima historic center or Miraflores).

Getting to Pachacamac from Lima downtown by private transportation, will take you 1.5 hours and from Miraflores or Barranco to Pachacamac about 45 minutes; The prices will not be cheap, so we advise you to take a group tour via a travel agency.


12. Nearby places:

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